fungi mushrooms mycology the fifth kingdom

Pictorial supplement to The Fifth Kingdom - Chapter 11a

Fungal Ecology - part 1

(41 pictures)
The Fungal Succession on Herbivore Dung


Zygomycetes


11-1 Pilobolus1.jpg (6835 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Pilobolus


11-2 Pilobolus2.jpg (4776 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Pilobolus sporangiophores and sporangia.


11-3 Pilobolus3.jpg (2696 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Pilobolus - a single sporangium and its subsporangial vesicle.   The yellow colour of the carotenoid retina is refracted in the vesicle.


11-4 Piptocephalis1.jpg (4840 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - branched sporangiophores of Piptocephalis.


11-5 Piptocephalis2.jpg (6850 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Piptocephalis heads, showing clustered fans of merosporangia.


11-6 Syncephalis1.jpg (6743 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - sporangiophores of Syncephalis (low power).


11-7 Syncephalis2.jpg (5339 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - one sporangiophore head of Syncephalis, showing radiating merosporangia (high power).


11-8 Circinella1.jpg (4696 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Circinella minor (1) - young recurved sporangia


11-9 Circinella2.jpg (5138 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Circinella minor (2) - sporangia expanding


11-10 Circinella3.jpg (5999 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Circinella minor (3) - mature columellate sporangia


11-11 Rhopalostylis.jpg (5054 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Rhopalomyces elegans - apical vesicle with unispored sporangia.


11-12 Cunninghamella1.jpg (3895 bytes) 11-13 Cunninghamella2.jpg (5675 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Cunninghamella - apical vesicle and unispored sporangia. Ascomycetes


11-14 Ascobolus1.jpg (4635 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Ascobolus - numerous tiny apothecial ascomata


11-15 Ascobolus2.jpg (6937 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Ascobolus - several ascomata


11-16 Ascobolus3.jpg (7546 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Ascobolus - single ascoma.  Note coloured ascospores and protruding ascal tips.


11-17 Ascobolus4.jpg (4924 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Ascobolus - protruding, phototropic ascal tips.


11-18 Saccobolus1.jpg (7990 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Saccobolus - a squash of an entire apothecial ascoma. The dark bodies are the adherent octets of ascospores (see below)


11-19 Saccobolus2.jpg (5031 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Saccobolus - some of the asci more highly magnified, showing that the 8 purple spores stick together and are discharged as a unit.


11-20 Thecotheus1.jpg (8441 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - many-spored asci of Thecotheus


11-21 Thecotheus2.jpg (5932 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - one ascus of Thecotheus.  How many spores?
(clue - it must be a multiple of 8)


11-22 Podospora1.jpg (28908 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - black perithecial ascomata of Podospora - look closely and you will see several phototropic necks, pointing to the right.


11-23 Podospora2.jpg (7512 bytes) 11-24 Podospora3.jpg (1830 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Podospora - a perithecial ascoma, and a single ascospore with one primary (tubular) and two secondary (gelatinous) appendages.         Hyphomycetes


11-25 Basifimbria1.jpg (6217 bytes) 11-26 Basifimbria2.jpg (4407 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Basifimbria - on the substrate (left) and under high power (right) - note the sympodial conidium development


11-27 Arthrobotrys1.jpg (6426 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - tall conidiophores of Arthrobotrys on natural substrate.


11-28 Arthrobotrys2.jpg (3939 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - clavate didymospores of Arthrobotrys developing in synchronous clusters.


11-29 Arthrobotrys3.jpg (5457 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - a hyphal network of Arthrobotrys which functions as a nematode trap.


11-30 Graphium1.jpg (4383 bytes) 11-31 Graphium2.jpg (6087 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Graphium synnematal conidiomata on the substrate, each with an apical drop of slimy spores (left), and one conidioma mounted on a slide (right).   The vast numbers of spores obscure the structures that produce them (but see below)


11-32 Graphium3.jpg (4995 bytes) 11-33 Graphium4.jpg (5273 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - a synnematal conidioma of Graphium (left) and details of the percurrently extending conidiogenous cells under oil immersion and phase contrast (right).


11-34 Cephalotrichum1.jpg (6275 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - synnematal conidiomata of the dry-spored Cephalotrichum.


11-35 Cephalotrichum2.jpg (5076 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - a synnematal head of Cephalotrichum, with percurrently extending conidiogenous cells.


11-36 Trichurus.jpg (4687 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - Trichurus, another coprophilous synnematal hyphomycete with twisted, hair-like setae arising all over the fertile head. Basidiomycetes


11-37 Coprinus1.jpg (8900 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - primordia of Coprinus developing on horse dung.


11-38 Coprinus2.jpg (4550 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - close-up of the Coprinus primordia.


11-39 Coprinus3.jpg (3977 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - a stained and mounted primordium of Coprinus.


11-40 Coprinus4.jpg (7113 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - profuse fruiting of Coprinus on horse dung.


11-41 Coprinus5.jpg (5960 bytes)
Coprophilous fungi - delicate caps of Coprinus stuck to the glass lid of the incubation dish.


   Go to Chapter 11b     Go to Table of Contents

© Mycologue publications 2020