Pictorial supplement to The Fifth Kingdom - Chapter 21

Mycotoxins in food and feed    
(14 pictures)

21-1 ergots.jpg (2947 bytes) Mycotoxins - ergots, the overwintering sclerotia of Claviceps purpurea, which replace the grains of the host grass, commonly rye.
21-2 ergodryl.jpg (11190 bytes) Mycotoxins - a prescription drug for migraine, containing ergotamine tartrate.
21-3 mouse vs ergot1.jpg (6476 bytes) Mycotoxins - Are the ergot alkaloids part of the struggle for survival?

Mice might eat the ergots and prevent the fungus from reproducing sexually (the ergot's boxing gloves represent its compound perithecial ascomata).

21-4 mouse vs ergot2.jpg (6119 bytes) Mycotoxins - The hallucinogenic alkaloids might trigger visions of delight...
21-5 mouse vs ergot3.jpg (13129 bytes) ...or send the mouse on a really bad trip.
21-6 aflatoxin label.jpg (9591 bytes) Mycotoxins - Aflatoxin really is one of the most toxic and carcinogenic substances known, as this label emphasizes.
21-7 aflatoxin fluorescence.jpg (2849 bytes) Mycotoxins - fluorescence of aflatoxin B in cultures of Aspergillus parasiticus.
21-14 Aspergillus Penicillium.jpg (9583 bytes) Mycotoxins - the yellowish colonies are of Aspergillus flavus, a producer of aflatoxin.  The green colonies are of  Penicillium, another mycotoxin-producing genus (ochratoxin, patulin, penitrem, PR toxin).
21-8 mouse vs aspergillus.jpg (7688 bytes) Mycotoxins - Is aflatoxin a weapon in the battle for food?  Mice could be serious competitors for peanuts...
21-9 mouse vs aspergillus2.jpg (9171 bytes) ...but aflatoxin might be an effective means of excluding them.
21-10 Stachybotrys.jpg (3349 bytes) Mycotoxins - Stachybotrys, cause of stachbotryotoxicosis of horses (and now a source of controversy in human disease as well). 
21-11 hole-in-the-head.jpg (6980 bytes) Mycotoxins - "hole-in-the-head disease" of horses - leucoencephalomalacia, caused by toxins of Fusarium moniliforme..
21-12 zearalenone.jpg (6278 bytes) Mycotoxins - corn attacked by Fusarium graminearum, source of zearalenone and vomitoxin.
21-13 Pithomyces.jpg (9116 bytes) Mycotoxins - Pithomyces chartarum which causes facial eczema of sheep.
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Mycologue Publications 2001