fungi mushrooms mycology the fifth kingdom

Pictorial supplement to The Fifth Kingdom - Chapter 15

Fungi exploiting microscopic animals

(27 pictures)

[These pictures are almost all borrowed from Dr. George Barron's fine treatise
"The Nematode-Destroying Fungi"  which I urge you all to read]

Nematode-exploiting fungi - ripe zoosporangia of Catenaria anguillulae (Chytridiomycetes) that have developed inside a nematode.

Nematode-exploiting fungi - a linear series of zoosporangia of Myzocytium filling the body cavity of a nematode

15-14 Meria1.jpg (6253 bytes)
Nematode-exploiting fungi - sticky conidia of Meria coniospora - there is a blob of glue at the narrow end.

15-15 Meria2.jpg (5555 bytes)
Nematode-exploiting fungi - conidia of Meria coniospora attached to the anterior end of a nematode.

15-18 Verticillium.jpg (4802 bytes)
Nematode-exploiting fungi - conidiophores of Verticillium arising from a nematode corpse, and producing sticky conidia.

15-16 Harposporium1.jpg (4400 bytes)
Nematode-exploiting fungi - globose conidiogenous cells of Harposporium anguillulae producing sickle-shaped conidia.

15-17 Harposporium2.jpg (4134 bytes)
Nematode-exploiting fungi - curved and pointed conidia of Harposporium rhynchosporum and Harposporium diceraeum.

15-3 adhesive knobs.jpg (9295 bytes)
Nematode-exploiting fungi - adhesive knobs of Arthobotrys candida (Hyphomycetes), 5 of which (count them) have caught a nematode.

15-4 detached adhesive knobs.jpg (7300 bytes)
Nematode-exploiting fungi - detached adhesive knobs of Arthrobotrys candida (Hyphomycetes) stuck to a doomed nematode.

15-5 Nematoctonus knobs.jpg (4917 bytes)
Nematode-exploiting fungi - adhesive knobs of Nematoctonus (Basidiomycetes - note the clamp connection).

15-1 landscape.gif (18740 bytes)
 Nematode-exploiting fungi - a microscopic landscape, with Arthrobotrys oligospora (Hyphomycetes) catching nematodes in sticky nets, and producing conidiophores and conidia.

15-2 adhesive nets.gif (12116 bytes)
Nematode-exploiting fungi - adhesive nets of Arthrobotrys oligospora (Hyphomycetes) being produced from a nematode corpse (the dark band).

15-6 detachable rings.jpg (6259 bytes)
Nematode-exploiting fungi - non-constricting rings of Arthobotrys candida. Note the weak junction between hypha and ring (arrow), which facilitates detachment when a nematode passes through.

15-7 detachable rings2.jpg (9274 bytes)
Nematode-exploiting fungi - non-constricting rings of Arthrobotrys candida fitting snugly around doomed nematodes.

15-8 constricting rings.jpg (5749 bytes)
Nematode-exploiting fungi - a nematode caught by two constricting ring traps of Arthrobotrys.

15-9 constricting rings2.jpg (7333 bytes)
Nematode-exploiting fungi - a constricting ring trap before and after triggering. Note the arrowheads which show that material does not move from the hypha into the inflating cells of the ring. Inflation is by imbibition from the surroundings.

15-10 constricting rings3.jpg (8637 bytes)
Nematode-exploiting fungi - the inflating cells of the ring rupture the outer wall along a clearly defined line of weakness, which is clearly seen in the scanning electronmicrograph (left).

15-11 constricting rings4.jpg (11578 bytes)
Nematode-exploiting fungi - the large phragmospores of some nematode-trapping Hyphomycetes will produce a constricting ring trap immediately upon germination, if nematodes are present - and this gambit works, as these photomicrographs show!

15-19 nema cartoon.gif (6610 bytes)
.I have forgotten what the original legend for this cartoon was. But it certainly seems appropriate in this context.

15-20 rotifer.jpg (5772 bytes)
Rotifer-exploiting fungi - the lethal lollipop - Zoophagus (Oomycetes) trapping loricate rotifers.

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