Pictorial Supplement to The Fifth Kingdom - Chapter 11a

Fungal Ecology - part 1 (41 pictures)

                         The Fungal Succession on Herbivore Dung
                                                Zygomycetes
11-1 Pilobolus1.jpg (6835 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Pilobolus
11-2 Pilobolus2.jpg (4776 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Pilobolus sporangiophores and sporangia.
11-3 Pilobolus3.jpg (2696 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Pilobolus - a single sporangium and its subsporangial vesicle.   The yellow colour of the carotenoid retina is refracted in the vesicle.
11-4 Piptocephalis1.jpg (4840 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - branched sporangiophores of Piptocephalis.
11-5 Piptocephalis2.jpg (6850 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Piptocephalis heads, showing clustered fans of merosporangia.
11-6 Syncephalis1.jpg (6743 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - sporangiophores of Syncephalis (low power).
11-7 Syncephalis2.jpg (5339 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - one sporangiophore head of Syncephalis, showing radiating merosporangia (high power).
11-8 Circinella1.jpg (4696 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Circinella minor (1) - young recurved sporangia
11-9 Circinella2.jpg (5138 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Circinella minor (2) - sporangia expanding
11-10 Circinella3.jpg (5999 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Circinella minor (3) - mature columellate sporangia
11-11 Rhopalostylis.jpg (5054 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Rhopalomyces elegans - apical vesicle with unispored sporangia.
11-12 Cunninghamella1.jpg (3895 bytes) 11-13 Cunninghamella2.jpg (5675 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Cunninghamella - apical vesicle and unispored sporangia.
                                                     Ascomycetes
11-14 Ascobolus1.jpg (4635 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Ascobolus - numerous tiny apothecial ascomata
11-15 Ascobolus2.jpg (6937 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Ascobolus - several ascomata
11-16 Ascobolus3.jpg (7546 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Ascobolus - single ascoma.  Note coloured ascospores and protruding ascal tips.
11-17 Ascobolus4.jpg (4924 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Ascobolus - protruding, phototropic ascal tips.
11-18 Saccobolus1.jpg (7990 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Saccobolus - a squash of an entire apothecial ascoma. The dark bodies are the adherent octets of ascospores (see below)
11-19 Saccobolus2.jpg (5031 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Saccobolus - some of the asci more highly magnified, showing that the 8 purple spores stick together and are discharged as a unit.
11-20 Thecotheus1.jpg (8441 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - many-spored asci of Thecotheus
11-21 Thecotheus2.jpg (5932 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - one ascus of Thecotheus.  How many spores?
(clue - it must be a multiple of 8)
11-22 Podospora1.jpg (28908 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - black perithecial ascomata of Podospora - look closely and you will see several phototropic necks, pointing to the right.
11-23 Podospora2.jpg (7512 bytes) 11-24 Podospora3.jpg (1830 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Podospora - a perithecial ascoma, and a single ascospore with one primary (tubular) and two secondary (gelatinous) appendages.
                                                    Hyphomycetes
11-25 Basifimbria1.jpg (6217 bytes) 11-26 Basifimbria2.jpg (4407 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Basifimbria - on the substrate (left) and under high power (right) - note the sympodial conidium development
11-27 Arthrobotrys1.jpg (6426 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - tall conidiophores of Arthrobotrys on natural substrate.
11-28 Arthrobotrys2.jpg (3939 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - clavate didymospores of Arthrobotrys developing in synchronous clusters.
11-29 Arthrobotrys3.jpg (5457 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - a hyphal network of Arthrobotrys which functions as a nematode trap.
11-30 Graphium1.jpg (4383 bytes) 11-31 Graphium2.jpg (6087 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Graphium synnematal conidiomata on the substrate, each with an apical drop of slimy spores (left), and one conidioma mounted on a slide (right).   The vast numbers of spores obscure the structures that produce them (but see below)
11-32 Graphium3.jpg (4995 bytes) 11-33 Graphium4.jpg (5273 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - a synnematal conidioma of Graphium (left) and details of the percurrently extending conidiogenous cells under oil immersion and phase contrast (right).
11-34 Cephalotrichum1.jpg (6275 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - synnematal conidiomata of the dry-spored Cephalotrichum.
11-35 Cephalotrichum2.jpg (5076 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - a synnematal head of Cephalotrichum, with percurrently extending conidiogenous cells.
11-36 Trichurus.jpg (4687 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - Trichurus, another coprophilous synnematal hyphomycete with twisted, hair-like setae arising all over the fertile head.
                                          Basidiomycetes
11-37 Coprinus1.jpg (8900 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - primordia of Coprinus developing on horse dung.
11-38 Coprinus2.jpg (4550 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - close-up of the Coprinus primordia.
11-39 Coprinus3.jpg (3977 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - a stained and mounted primordium of Coprinus.
11-40 Coprinus4.jpg (7113 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - profuse fruiting of Coprinus on horse dung.
11-41 Coprinus5.jpg (5960 bytes) Coprophilous fungi - delicate caps of Coprinus stuck to the glass lid of the incubation dish.

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Mycologue Publications 2001